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Water Treatment and the Environment

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Expert assessment

  Water Analysis  
  Our laboratory specializes in analyzing the water used in heating systems. Given our wealth of practical experience, accumulated over decades, our experienced technicians can "read" the samples like a book. Most component manufacturers and standards institutes define quality requirements that must be met by the heating water if trouble-free operation is to be ensured.

Most common criteria

Residues: ideally, the water in a system is free of residues. The corrosion products, magnetite (black) and rust indicate corrosion and can themselves cause damage (clogging, erosion).

pH: determination of the heating water's pH is an important factor. Water with a pH of less than 7 is referred to as "acid" while water with a pH of 7 - 14 is referred to as "basic". Water used for heating must be basic and is regarded as not promoting corrosion if its pH is no less than 8.3 and no more than 9.5. A pH that is too high will tend to erode aluminum components if the flow conditions are unfavorable.

Oxygen content: the water used to fill systems generally contains 5 to 10 mg/l. The ideal value is less than or equal to 0.1 mg/l. However, measuring the oxygen content is an involved process in practice so judgments are generally based on the other parameters.

Electrical conductivity m S/cm: the value should be as low as possible. A figure of less than 1/3 of the conductance of the water used to fill the system is regarded as good. High electrical conductivity promotes corrosion (electrolyte). In absolute terms, water with a conductivity greater than 500 m S/cm is regarded as jeopardizing the system (SWKI Guideline 97-1). Chemical inhibitors increase conductivity. However, the current consensus is that a conductance greater than 1,000 m S/cm jeopardizes the system, even when inhibitors are used.

Iron content: the iron content detected should be negligible. Dissolved iron is a direct indicator of actual corrosion phenomena in the heating system.

Hardness: as with conductivity, the hardness of the water in the system should be about 1/3 or less of the feed water. High hardness in heating systems indicates that fresh water is being fed in or that the equilibrium has been disturbed by inhibitors. Systems containing a large amount of water should be filled with fully dematerialized water if possible.

Analysis of the heating water is a central part of an expert assessment and should prevent bad investments. Generally speaking, it helps in the following ways:

- Clarifying the need for corrosion protection measures

- Clarifying the need to clean a system

- Checking the results of system cleaning

- Checking the effect of corrosion prevention measures


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